Pelvic surgeries like myomectomy (removal of fibroid tumors), caesarean section for child birth, appendix removal, removal of ovarian cyst or tumor, laparoscopy for fertility testing, termination of an unplanned pregnancy, surgery for ectopic pregnancy can lead to infertility in women. These surgeries can cause fertility problems due to either tubal blockage, damage to the ovaries reducing ovarian reserve or by damaging the uterine bed for implantation. At times bleeding disorders or tumors of uterus can warrant a hysterectomy (removal of uterus) making the women unable to carry further pregnancy. In these cases, surrogacy is advisable if fertility is required by the couple.
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