Miscarriage is the loss of a baby before 23 weeks of pregnancy and this can cause much distress for parents.1% to 2% of women experience repeated pregnancy loss. There are many possible causes for miscarriage, including: genetic and hormonal problems; infection and blood-clotting defects; uterine problems and cervical weakness. The treatment recommendations for patients with recurrent pregnancy loss are based on the underlying cause of recurrent pregnancy loss.
2% to 4% of miscarriages are associated with a parental balanced structural chromosome rearrangement. Congenital uterine anomalies, intrauterine adhesions, and uterine fibroids or polyps.
The uterine septum is the congenital uterine anomaly most closely linked to repeated abortions. Unicornuate, didelphic, and bicornuate uteri have been associated with smaller increases in the risk for RPL.Intramural fibroids larger than 5 cm, as well as submucosal fibroids of any size, can cause RPL. Hormone deficiency in luteal phase defect can cause loss of pregnancy in PCOS. Various infections speculated to play a role in miscarriages include mycoplasma, ureaplasma, Chlamydia trachomatis, L monocytogenes, and HSV.